Myanmar Comprehensive Education Sector Review Myanmar Comprehensive Education Sector Review Ministry of Education

Myanmar Comprehensive Education Sector Review (CESR)

The vision of the CESR is to develop an education system that promotes a learning society capable of facing the challenges of the Knowledge Age and that it helps to build a modern developed nation through education.

Comprehensive Education Sector Review

The vision of the Comprehensive Education Sector Review (CESR) is to develop an education system that promotes a learning society capable of facing the challenges of the Knowledge Age and that it helps to build a modern developed nation through education.

The review will help ensure that there is a full and comprehensive understanding of the current status of education in Myanmar, regarding access and quality across the sub-sectors; as well as current strengths and gaps in policy, capacity, management systems, financing and partnership. This will support the implementation of priority reforms and the assessment of realistic policy options to form the basis of a costed, strategic education sector plan. These, in turn, have the potential to address the challenges and greatly accelerate progress towards realisation of Myanmar’s education and socio-economic goals.

The CESR will be conducted through a coherent three phase process, which aims to strike a balance between completeness, quality and timeliness, and will be completed in three phases between 2012 and 2014. The establishment of CESR in 2012 was followed by the setting up by the President in late 2013 of the Education Promotion Implementation Committee (EPIC). CESR is developing recommendations for reform of the education system; EPIC is drafting policies for implementation of educational reform. The two groups work together. A key focus for EPIC is to develop a national Education Law as an overarching framework for education. CESR and EPIC will develop and present one overall, integrated plan. Implementation of Myanmar’s education reform program has already commenced in early 2014, and will continue through 2015-20.

Project Phases

  • Phases
  • Phase One
  • Phase Two
  • Phase Three

The Comprehensive Education Sector Review will be completed in three phases between 2012 and 2014.

The Rapid Assessment (Volume 1) focussed specifically on education policy, planning, management, legislation, financing and capacity issues, across all sub-sectors. It identified overarching policy strengths, gaps and priorities from a sector-wide perspective. It responded to the immediate concern of policy makers to address system-wide policy issues for the reform of the education sector and to develop/ update the legal and institutional frameworks aiming to define the contours of future education reform. It will also help to support a coherent approach to the overall CESR process and provide a foundational analysis for the second phase.

Phase Two of the CESR is conducting In-depth Analysis, building on and adding to the findings and recommendations of the Rapid Assessment (RA) which were produced in Phase 1. The In-depth Analysis will produce a series of linked reports that will together constitute Volume Two of the CESR.

The studies will provide a strong body of data and analysis, and identify strengths, weaknesses and lessons learned about education systems and good practice, both in Myanmar and in other countries. Based on the evidence produced, the studies will provide a set of recommendations for education reform which will guide the development of strategically targeted, costed plans for the whole education sector in Phase 3.

The objectives of the In-depth Analysis are to develop a detailed and up-to-date picture of the education sector, focusing on seven components:

  • • Policy, legislation, management and financing
  • • Early Childhood Development (ECD) and Basic Education
    • o Quality and management of Primary and Secondary education
    • o Language of Instruction and the use of ethnic languages and English language
    • o Curriculum, Textbook and Learner Assessment
    • o Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA)
  • • Teacher Education
  • • Non-Formal Education (NFE)
  • • Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET)
  • • Higher Education
  • • Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

The role of education in peace-building will also be integrated throughout all the components, as a key cross-cutting issue.

Consultations will be conducted throughout Phase 2 to ensure that the studies reflect the different needs and views of diverse groups of people from different backgrounds around the country.

All the Phase 2 components will look at options for increasing access to education for all groups in society, as well as improving the quality and relevance of education at every level. Recommendations for improving management, planning and monitoring will also be a key feature.

As a guiding principle, all the studies will look closely at issues of equity. This will involve:

  • • analysing how policies, programmes, practices, organisational processes and institutional structures impact on different groups and individuals
  • • making recommendations for policies and actions to improve positive impacts so that all groups can benefit equitably

Dimensions of equity which the studies will consider are:

  • • Gender;
  • • Ethnicity/ language background;
  • • Economic status/ poverty;
  • • Geographic location (e.g. urban, rural, remote), by State/ Region/ Township;
  • • Disability;
  • • Other vulnerabilities, for example post conflict and migrant communities, impact of HIV/AIDS etc.

This component will contribute to providing strategic directions and priorities for system reform and development, leading to the design of a sector-wide costed education plan (with medium-term priority programmes from a long-term development perspective). Indicatively, the plan will take a ‘2+5” format, with one plan for 2014-2016 and a five year plan from 2016-2021 to fit with Government five year planning cycles.


You can download the entire CESR Terms of Reference from our site.


You can download the entire Letter of Agreement from our site.